Explorations in History and Society

Exploring and Collecting the History of the Somali clan of Hawiye.

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taariikhda sheekh xasan barsane oo kooban

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Imaam Sheekh Xasan Sheekh Nuur Sheekh Axmed
“ Sheekh Xasan Barsane “ ( 1853 – 1927 )Sheekh Xasn Sheekh Nuur Sheekh Axmed oo lo yiqiin Sheekh Xasan Barsane wuxuu dhashay sanadka markuu ahaa 1853, wuxuuna ku dhashay tuulada loo yaqaan Ubaadi oo u jirta qiyaas ilaa 68Km magaalada Jowhar, Gobolka Shabeelaha Dhexe, Soomaaliya.
Hooyadiis waxaa la dhihi jiray Xalima Hilowle Sheekh Xasan wuxuu ka soo jeeday qoys Somaali ah una saxiib ah Diinta Islaamka iyo fardooleey. Aabihii Sheekh Nuur wuxuu ahaa sheekh ka tirsan dariiqooyinka Raxmaaniya. Wuxuu ka dhex muuqday hoggamiyana u ahaa jameecadiisa.Sheekh Xasna Sheekh Nuur Sheekh Axmed wuxuu bartay Qur’aan Kariimka isagoo ya, kuna bartay tuulada Unaadi wuxuuna barashada Diinta Islaamka ku bilaabay isagoo aan weli gaarin 10 jir halkaas oo la shegay in aabihiiis uu mashaa’ikhda Diinta bartaa ugu keenay. Markuu laabtan jirsaday ayeey isaga iyo aabihiis isku raaceen inuu sii kordhisto wax barashadiisa uu doonto iyadoo ay jirtay in aabihii uu mashaa’iikh fara badan ugu keenay halkii ay ku noolaayeen.Shiikhii wuxuu aaday meel walbo oo uu ku tabaayay in cilmi uu yaalo oo uu ka sii kororsas karo meelaha uu cimliga u dontay dalka gudihiisa waxaa ka mid ahaa Mateey Aw Xasan oo ku taala Afgooye iyo Muqdisho. Sheekhu kama uusan zuulin inuu raadiyo cilmi isagoo markaana day dalka dibadiisa sida magalada Marka uu tagay laba jeer oo kala duwan wuxuuna halkaas ku soo gutay xajkii iyo cilmi uu raadinayay, wuxuu halkaas ku maqnaa muddo ka bdan saddex sanadood.Sheekhu waxa uu halkasi kula soo kulmay Sheekh Maxamed Saalax oo sheekha ay dariiqada SAALIXIYADA ka soo jeedo ah.Sheekh Xasan Barsane markii uu ku soo laabty dalka waxaa dalka soo buux dhaafiyay gumeyste kala duwan oo markaas iyo ka horba ku sugnaa dalka tan iyo intii ay dhacday qeybsashadii Afrika ( 1884 ) dalalka reer galbeedak oo ay ugu horeeyeen Ingiriiska, Faransiikam Talyaaniga iyo Boruqiiska aya soo galay dalkeena hooyo ee Somaaliya. Sheekhu wuxuu ka biyo diiday inuyu ku hoos nooaado gumeyste isagoo ka doo biday inuu geeriyoodo isagoo dhawraya sharafta Diinta iyo dalka. Sheekhu wuxuu dhexgalay dadka isagoo jamciyay ciidan firadiisa lagu qiyaasay ilaa laabtan kun ilaa soddon kun ( 20,000 – 30.000). tababar dheer iyo wacyi gelin ka dib sheekha iyo ciidamadisii u kacay difaaca dalka iyo Diinta.Waxaa ay la kulmeen hanjbaad iyo hujuum kaga imaanayay dhanka gumeystaha Talyaaniga oo iyagu markaas heestay dhamman koofurta Soomaaliya iyo Etiopia oo aheyd dalka kali ah ee Afrika kana qeyb galay qeybsashada dalalka Afirca ee Berlin 1884.

Sheekhu dhag jalaq uma siin dhamaan hanjabaadaas iyo baqdin galin taas kaga imaameysay dhanka Gumeystaha gumeystaha Talyaaniga xiligaasi waxaa Soomaaliya wakiil uga ahaa Jeneral la oran jiray Mario Devechio.
Si kastaba ha ahaatee Sheekha wuxuu go’aansaday inuu la dagaalamo.

Waqtigii ayaa dhamaaday waxaa bilowday dagaaladii fool ka foolka ahaa ee Sheekhu la galay gumeysihii. Sheeikha iyo gumeystaha waxay kulmeen marar badan iyagoo dhamaan dagaaladii uu la galay gumeystaha uu halkaasi kaga guuleystay. Waxaana dagaaladii u Sheekha la galay gumeystaha ka xusi karnaa :

· Gumar Sheel ( 1905 ) waxa uu ahaa dagaalkii ugu horeeyay ee uu la galay Amxaardii oo markaas isku dayaysay inay la wareegto dhamaan dhulka Soomaaliyeed iyadoo markaas timid Taytayle
( Balcad ). Waxaa jiray dagaalo kale uu Sheekha la galay Ethiopia ilaa markii danbe ay dalka ka baxaan

Waxaa kaloo ka mid ahaa dagaaladii uu la galay gumeystaha gaar ahan Talyaaniga oo aan ka xusi karno :

1. Dagaalkii Buulo Barde oo dhacay 1922
2. Ceel Dheere 1922 iyo 1923
3. Hilweyne 1923
4. Jiliyaale 1924
5. Hareeriile 1924

Sheekh Xasan Barsane wuxu ku caan baxay inuu ciidanka ka bar bar dagaalamo isago dhiiri galin jiray una sheegi jiray wax yaalaha hadii ay ku dhintaan iyo hadii ay ka bad baadaanba haleyaan waxaan u wadaa Aakhiro iyo Aduun. Dagaaladii faraha badanaa ee uu la galay Sheekha wuxuu ku laayay rag faro badan oo ka tirsanaa gumeystaha oo isugu jiray saraakiil iyo dablay .
Gumeystaha oo ka faa’ideystay maqnaashaha ciidamada Sheekha oo markaas ku maqnaa dagaalo dhinaca Hiiraan ayaa dhabar jabin ka dib waxa ay hareereeyeen xaruntii Sheekha iyagoo adeegsanaaya hubka xiligaa ugu casrisnaa lana yimid ciidan fara baan oo ay ka oo wadeen dhankaas iyo cadan iyo weliba kuwa kale oo ay ka soo ka xeeyeen dalalka kale oo ay gymeysan jireen kuwaas oo ahaa calooshood u shaqeystayaal sida ku cad buugii uu qoray Mario Devechio oo lagu magacaabo ORIZENTO DI IMPERO. Ka bid Sheekha waxaa uu u gacan galay cadowga, waxayna ka dalbadeen inuu ciidamadiisa ku amro inay is dhiibaan, waa uu ka biyo diiday. Si kastaba ha ahaatee gumeystaha ayaa aakhiritankii ku guuleystay inay qabtaan oo ay xabsiga dhigaan Sheikh Xasan Barsane sanadu markay ahayd 1924.

Waxaa Sheekha lagu xabisay xabsiga loo yaqaaney Gaalshiro iyadoo markaasi maxkamada gumeysiga ay ku xukuntay 30 sano oo xarig ah oo ay u dheertahay shaqo adag iyo jirdil. Si kastaba ah ahaatee hadana gumeystaha ayaa ku qanci waayay inay xabisaan oo kaliya waayo Sheekh Xasan Barsane ayaa ahaa caqabadii ugu weyneyd ee ay gumeystaha Talyaaniga kala kulmeyn koonfurta Soomaaliya iyadoo aanba dhihi karno sheekha wuxuu ahaa quwada kali ah ee dagaalo waaweyn kaga hortimid. Talyaaniga ayaa 3 sano ka dib waxay hadana isku dayeen inay dilaan Sheekha iyagoo ay u suuro gashay sanada Markey ahayd 1927 iyado markaasi ay gumeystuhu ku xireen meel god ah oo aan ku filneyn inuu fariisto godkaas ayaa wuxuu lahaa oo kali ah meel yar oo shabaq camal ah oo uu xoogaa wax u neef ah ka qaadan jiray. Intaas oo kali ah ugumaysan simin hadana waxay ugu dareen inay sun ku buufiyaan qolkii uu ku xirnaa waxaana amarkaasi bixiyay KABEELLO sida uu xusay MAXAMED ABDI (Odoyaasha Muqdisho ) oo ka mid ahaa sadexdii Nin ee loo adegsaday inay fuliyaan falkaasi. Ugu danbeyntii Sheekha ayaa ku geeriyooday suntii. Sida ku xusan Orizento Impero iyo TREE ANNI DE IN SOMALIA .Sheekhu wuxuu dhintay taarikhdu mrkey ahayd 13. January 1927. waxaana lagu duugay Qabuuraha Sheekh Suufi oo ku yaalay agagaarka madaxtooyada Soomaaliya waxaana markii danbe loo qaaday oo uu hada ku aasan yahay degmada JILIYAALE oo markii hore Sheekha xarun u ahayd.

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Taariikh kooban ee ku saabsan Warsheikh

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Warsheekh waa degmo ka tirsan Gobolka Shabeelaha Dhexe, waxayna ilaa 90-Km dhinaca Waqooyi uga beegan tahay magaalada Muqdisho, waxay ku taalaa Xeebta Badweynta Hindiya waana magaalo qadiimi ah.
Magaca magaaladani leedahay ee Warsheekh wuxuu iska saaran yahay labo eray oo kala ah “War” iyo “Sheekh”, waxaana loo la jeedaa hadalkii Sheekha iyadoo Soomaalidu Sheekh u taqaano qofkii barta Cilmiga gaar ahaan Diinta Islaamka.Sababta magacaan uu ugu baxay degmada Warsheekh ayaa lagu sheegay in ay ka dhalatay arrin dhexmartay Wadaaddo Suufiyaal ahaa iyo boqor xilligaas xukumi jiray magaalada Muqdisho.
Wadaaddan oo ka koobnaa afar magacyadoodana lagu kala sheegay Sheekh Sacad Daawuud, Sheekh Cakwaaq, Sheekh Isxaj Waaq iyo Sheekh Muuse Ileey ayaa waxay khalwo cibaado ah oo ay dadka uga foganayaan ku galeen meel u dhaxaysa deegaanada Jaziira iyo Dhannaane, goobtaas oo saarneyd Xeebta Badda.

Culimadaan afarta ah ayaa waxay halkaas ku cibaadeysanayeen in ka badan 30 sano, waxayna khalwadii ka soo baxeen sanadkii 1034-tii Hijriyada, waxayna u soo dhaqaaqeen dhinaca magaalada Muqdisho.
Markii ay Muqdisho yimaadeen ayaa dad iyaga xaasid ku ahaa waxay Boqorkii xilligaa xukumayey magaalada si bara-bagaando ah ugu sheegeen in wadaadani ay yihiin dad saaxiriin ah oo doonaya in ay sixir soo geliyaan magaalada Muqdisho ee uu xukumayey.

Boqorkii wuxu amar ku bixiyey in afartaas wadaad la soo qabto jeelkana la dhigo, sidaas ayaana Xabsiga loogu taxaabay, markii habeen la gaaray ayey waxay ku fekereen qaab ay uga baxaan xabsiga mugdiga ahaa ee maamulka Boqorku uu geliyey.

Maadaama ay sanado badan soo cibaadeysanayeen waxay isku raaceen in ay Alle baryaan si uu dhibaatada ay ku jiraan uga saaro, mid kasta oo ka mid ah afartoodii waxaa loo dhiibay howl.

Mid ka mid ah waxay u xilsaareen in uu Alle baryo si albaabka Xabsigu uga furmo, mid kale ayaa isagana loo xilsaaray inuu Alle baryo si waardiyuhu u arki waayaan marka ay sii baxayaan, kan saddexaad ayaa isna loo xilsaaray inuu Alle ka baryo sidii uu wadada ugu fududeyn lahaa oo intii habeenimo meel fog ay u gaari lahaayeen, midka afaraad ayaa waxaa loo xilsaaray in uu Alle ka baryo in meeshii ay ku waabariistaan aysan ka waayin biyo ay ku weeseystaan.

Waxay ku dhaqaaqeen waxyaabihii ay ka showreen, waxaana ka furantay iriddii, waardiyihii ilaalinayey ma uusan arkin, waxayna u dhaqaaqeen dhulka Waqooyi ka jira magaalada Muqdisho, xilligii salaadda subax ayey gaareen halka ay hadda Warsheekh ku taalo oo ahayd meel aan magaalo ahayn oo ay dagan yihiin dad xoolaaleey ah.

Sheekhii loo xilsaaray inaan Salaadda subax la waayin biyo lagu weyseysto ayaa la gaaray doorkiisii, wuxuu qoday goob Badda cirifkeeda ah, waxaana ka soo baxay biyo, weyna ku weyso qaateen salaaddii subaxna sidaas ayey ku tukadeen.

Markii ay dhameysteen Salaadda ayey waxay raadiyeen cid uun martiqaadda maadaama ay yihiin safar qariib ah, waxay arkeen dad reer miyi ah oo si teel teel ah u daganaa dhulka baadiyaha ah, qofkii ugu horreysay ee ay u yimaadaan waxay ahayd haweeney magaceeda lagu sheegay Caasha, waxayna u sheegeen in ay yihiin culimo Xabsi ka soo baxday, waxayna ka dalbadeen in ay martiqaad u fidiso.

Haweeneydii waxay culimadii u sheegtay in reerku haysto raashin, balse aysan wax biyo ah haysan, waxay culimadii u sheegeen Haweeneydii in ay meel biyo ku ogyihiin, waxayna siiyeen tilmaan si ay biyo uga soo qaadato goobtii badda cirifkeeda ahayd ee ay xilligii salaadda subax ka weeseysteen, Haweeneydii waxay qaadatay weelashii xilligaas biyaha lagu doonan jiray, waxayna u dhaqaaqday goobtii culimadu u tilmaameen.
Dadkii reer miyiga ahaa ee meesha la deganaa Haweeneyda ayaa weydiiyey halka ay u socoto, waxayna Haweeneydii ku tiri “Waxaan ku socdaa War-sheekh” oo ay ula jeedday waxaan ku socdaa hadal uu ii sheegay Sheekh oo ah in meel ku dhow Badda biyo laga helayo, sidaas ayeyna Warsheekh magacaas ku qaadatay.

Xilligaas kaddib waxay Warsheekh noqotay meel magaalo ah oo dad fara badan dagan yihiin, dhowr jeer ayey magaaladaasi baaba’day haddana dib u dhisantay, waxaa deegaan ahaan u soo maray dadyow kala geddisan oo Ujuuraan ay ka mid ahaayeen, balse xilliga ay culimadani halkaasi tagayeen iyadoo aan meeshu magaalo ahayn ayaa Haweeneyda ay la kulmeen waxaa Shariif Caydaruus oo taariikhda Soomaalida wax ka qoray uu ku sheegay inay ahayd Wacdaan.

Taariikh kooban ee ku saabsan Cadale

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Degmada Cadale qarniyadii lasoo dhaafay waxey ka mid eheed furdooyinka ey dadka Soomaalida ah wax uga soo degijireen kuwaas oo kakala imaajiray wadamada Carabta iyo kuwa Afrikada Bari, waxaana laga rarijiray waxyaalaha ey wadamadaas u baahanyihiin sida xoolaha malaayga iwm.Badda Cadale waxaa laga helaa noocyo badan oo malaay ah oo weliba si dhibyar aad ku soo dabo kartid.dhica berriga geed gaab waxaana soomaalidu u taqaanaa deex. Waxaad meeshaas ku arkeysaa meel xoogaa tilaabo ah u jirto xeebta iney joogaan xoola duurta dadku ugaarsaso oo noocyo badan leh. Dadka deegaankaas ku dhaqan waxey kala yihiin xoolo dhaqato iyo malaay gadato. Xoolaha ey dadkaasu dhaqdaan waxey isugu jiraan: Geel, Lo’ iyo Iri, Iriga oo u kala baxo Iricad iyo Ido, waxowna degaankaasu caan ku yahay dhaqashada Idaha oo markii qof marti ah ow tago lagu martiqaado wan jar ah taasoo micnaheedu tahay wan aad u cayilan, dhinaca kale waxey Soomaalidu ku maahmaahdaa “lax iyo laxaw meel islama galaan” laxdaas aad maqashay waa midda ku dhaqan deegaankaa ee daaqdo cowska gumxirka loo yaqaano ee degmadaas iyo ruumanka ku yaalo ey caanka ku yihiin.Dhinaca kale gumeysigii talyaaniga waxow qabsashadii degmadaas kala kulmay halgan dheer oo dadkii degaankaasu lagaleen, makii dambe oo ow qabsadayna waxow u bixiyay magaca ah Italo oo ow kaweday Itaaliyadii yareed taasoo ku timid markii ow layaabay quruxda degmadaas.Kedib xurnimadii degmadaasu wexey kamid naqatay degmooyinkii la ilaabay ahmiyadii eylahaayeen.

Halkee ka yimid magaca Cadale?

Cadale waa degmo ka tirsan Gobolka Shabeelaha Dhexe, waxay ku taalaa Xeebta Badweynta Hindiya, waxayna Muqdisho dhinaca Waqooyi uga beegan tahay ilaa 180Km.

Cadale waxay ka mid tahay degmooyinka caanka ka ah Xeebaha Soomaaliya, waxayna aas aasantay xilli hore oo aan si sax ah taariikhdeeda loo hayn.

Magaca ay leedahay degmadani ee Cadale wuxuu iska saaran yahay labo eray oo gaagaaban, iyadoo midka hore yahay “Caday” iyo “Leh”, waxaana loo jeedaa goob Caday leh oo ay ka buuxaan geedaha lagu rumeysto.
Cadale ka hor intii aan la aasaasin waxay ahayd goob ay ku yaalaan teendhooyin yar yar oo ay leeyihiin dadka Kalluumeysato ah oo ka shaqeysan jiray Xeebaha ku dhow dhow degmada Cadale.
Cadale waxay caasimad u ahaan jirtay dadka ku nool deegaanada ku dhow dhow maadaama ay ahayd magaalo weyn tan iyaga ugu dhow.
Sanadkii 1307 ee Hijriyada ayaa waxaa deegaanadaas ciidamadii Talyaaniga ee gumeystaha kula dagaalamay dadka deegaanka, inkastoo haddana jabhad halkaas laga aas aasay oo ka horjeedday Talyaaniga aysan muddo dheer shaqeyn oo ay mar dambe burburtay.
Degmada Cadale waxay horey u ahaan jirtay magaalo ay deggan yihiin waddaado fara badan, iyadoo ka mid ah magaalooyinkii ugu masaajidyada badnaa xilliyadii hore.

Dadka deegaankaasi deganaan jiray waxaa ka mid ahaa Sheekh Axmed Sheekh Abiikar Xasan (Sh. Axmed Wacdiyow), wuxuuna Sheekhaasi ahaa wadaad aad uga soo horjeeday imaanshihii Talyaaniga ee dalka Soomaaliya, wuxuuna isku dayey in uu si awood ah uga hortago gumeystihii Talyaaniga.

Sheekh Axmed Wacdiyow oo reer Cadale ahaa waxaa jira Gabayo fara badan oo uu ka tiriyey gumeystihii Talyaaniga iyo sida uu uga soo horjeedday, waxaana ka mid ahaa gabayadiisii:

Soomaaliyaan u dagaalamaynaa,
dalkeena ballaaran u daafacaynaa,
kuwa dulmaaya la dood galaynaa,
dabeylka mowdku intuu I daadihin,
hilibka duud cunin deebna uu noqon,
duruyadaada dab looma aasee,
kuwa dambaan u dariiq falaynaa,
kufriga soo dagay diidda leenahay.


Written by abshir100

July 27, 2009 at 1:00 am

The former course of the Webbi

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This Webi is thus at present, but in olden times the Webi did not pass through this territory, from here to Gälädi and more. At that time the Aguran and the Garrä used to live here. The ones who lived toward Gälädi used to drink at the wells. The people of Walamoy used to drink at Mogadiscio. Until today the village of Walamoy has been called Walamoy Hamar-däy (‘Look toward Mogadiscio’). And even today the place in which they stopped in the woodland of Däh is called: Hariri Walamoy (‘the stop of Walamoy’).

“It was (the saint) Au Hiltir who brought the Webi here. This was obtained through his prayers. When the waters (of the Webi) were thus seen to come down, Au Hiltir said: ‘These waters have been obtained from God. Do not wash your uncleanness in these waters!’ Thus it was forbidden to people to wash unclean things in these waters (of the Webi). But once a freed went into the water of the Webi, being all unclean, and he washed himself. From his uncleanness a crocodile was born. Thus the crocodiles began.”

This tradition also adumbrates a historical reality. Actually even now a depression starts from the W]ebi in the upper part of the zone of the Sidlä, crosses the territory now inhabited by the Mobilen, and returns to the present course of the river upstream from Gälädi. Locally this depression is usually explained as one of the far of the Webi. The defluents of the Webi in the sections where it has a pensile course are called by the name of far (‘finger’), but the same name also designates the biggest canals taking the irrigation water from the river. The tradition published here proves how the great depression of which we have spoken rather represents an ancient bed of the river. The Webi, because of the slight slope of its middle course in Somalia, may in fact, without any difficulty, have changed its bed in some part of its path.

The circumstance mentioned in the tradition, that the Garrä and the Aguran lived in the zone of the depression, now held by the Mobilen and the Híllibi, relates the event of the change of the course of the river to at least the XV century.

This geographical situation that the tradition attests to is then further confirmed by recent events, of which we have been witnesses. During a very great flood in 1916 the Webi entered the old bed with its waters and thus caused very serious damage to the villages and to the farming of the Mobilen. Subsequently, during another menacing flood in 1922, in order to avoid damage which would have been irreparable in the zone of the Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi, the cutting of the stoppage of the old depression was undertaken, utilizing it, with all caution and without any harmful consequences, in order to reduce the level of the flood water.

References;

Enrico Cerulli “How a Hawiye tribe use to live”

Brief overview of Hawiyya clan settlement pattern

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Between 1300-1600

A notion provided by oral tradition about the circumstances in which the Ajuraan state emerged concerns the role of the pastoral Hawiyya clans. Both the origin story and the scattered references to the components of the Ajuraan confederacy suggest that Hawiyya clans formed the core of the polity. External evidence indicates that the present pattern of Hawiyya settlement along both sides of the middle Shabeelle River took shape between 1300 and 1600. Apart from Hawiyya clan traditions, which provide us with a rough chronology of particular clan movements, we find corroboration in Arabic accounts from the coast, which document the spread of Hawiyya trading settlements along the Indian Ocean littoral, and also in Muqdisho town chronicles, which record the intrusion of Hawiyya pastoralists in town life from the mid-fifteenth century.

Hawiyya pastoral migrations involved the occupation of strategic well sites and trading centers as well as extensive grazing areas on both sides of the Shabeelle River. The process of occupation was almost certainly carried out by successive, small-scale advances of herding units and lineage segments over a period of several generations but the end result was the establishment of Hawiyya territorial dominance over a large region. Their control of key pastoral resources provided the economic foundations for an extensive pastoral polity. Indeed, the places identified in tradition as centers of Ajuraan power are without exception sites of important clusters of wells; and most of the ruins attributed to the Ajuraan era lie near well complexes which were central nodes in the annual grazing cycles of the region’s nomads. The inference is that the Ajuraan ruled as a pastoral aristocracy, with the control of wells being the source and symbol of their power.

These roughly contemporaneous Hawiyya pastoral movements can be seen as contributing to the consolidation of a regional polity that fits well with what we know of the Ajuraan from traditions. While the traditions can do no more than indicate the general circumstances in which Ajuraan power was exercised, they do help us weight the external evidence from the period. By juxtaposing oral sources with other fragmentary evidence, it has been possible to suggest a historical explanation for the appearance of the Ajuraan “state” around 1500.

References

The Shaping of Somali society

Written by abshir100

July 6, 2009 at 10:50 am

The Khulafa of Shaykh Uways B.Muhammed Al Barawi

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The following is a list of prominent Qadiriyah Khulifa listed in the hagoigraphy of Shaykh Aweys Al Barawi, al Jawar al Nafis (pp.17-24),

the following mentioned are affiliated with a Hawiya lineage.

Shaykh Imam Mahmud b. Benyamin al-Yaqubi
Shaykh Shakh’a famous as Shaykh Shaykhow
Shaykh Muhammad b. Uthman b. Ma’ow al-Yaqubi
Shaykh Yahya b. ‘Adow (known as Hajji Wahiliyya)
Shaykh Hajji Mahmud b. Hasan al-Warshaykhi 

Shaykh Abdi ‘Eli al-Warshaykhi
Shaykh Abu Bakr b. Muhammed b. Uthman al-Wa’issli
Shaykh Mahmud b. Hasan al-Daudi
Mu’allim Qassim al-Dubbarwayni al-Qadiri
Shaykh Ahmad b Mu’allim ‘Uthman al-Kandrashi
Shaykh Mukhtar Askub al-Kandrashi
Shaykh Ahmad b. Hajj Nur Jahbaz al-Kandrashi
Ahmad Yarow al-Sa’adi al-Qadiri
Abdullah b. Mu’allin Yusu al-Qutbi
Abd al-Salam b. Hajj Jama’ al-Qutbi
Muhammad b.Hajj Jama’ al-Qutbi
Hassan b. Barre al-Qubti al-Qadiri
Abu Bakr b. Ibrahim al-Qutbi al-Qadiri
Ahmad al-Qutbi al-Qadiri
Hajji Mahmud Fulow b. Mu’allin ‘Umar al-Qutbi
Al-Qadi Ali b. Mahmud b. Thabit al-Jawhari al-Qadiri
Faqi Ma’ow al-Qadiri
Abd Malaq al-Qadiri
Hajji Mayrow al-Qadiri
Uthman b. Aliyow
Hajji Nur al-Qadiri
Sultan Salad
Abdiyow Karkar wa al-Qadiri
Muhammad b. Ali al-Qadiri

References;

Scott Reese “Holy men and social discouse in Colonial Benaadir”; Appendix One.

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July 3, 2009 at 2:09 pm

The injustice of the Abgal Imam

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In the annals of the Benaadir, the three hundred years from 1500-1800 is viewed as a dark time of troubles. From the Benaadiri perspective it was also a time that was survived only through the piety of a few individuals whose spiritual strength preserved the social fabric in the face of tyranny and agression. This is especially true in the traditions of Mogadishu where such evils were held in check only through the efforts of righteous individuals. By the late nineteenth century, as we shall see, the Abgal of Shangani had become productive citizens. Oral traditions contend, however, that this was not always the case. During the first years of pastoral occupation, Abgal rule was characterized by innumerable injustices. The practise of forcing all new brides in the town to spend the first seven days of marriage in bed, The good Muslims of Mogadishu were outaged by such evil but were too oppressed to resist. One pious man named Abu Ahmad Ala’ al-Din decided to take action. The father of the seven daughters, he swore an oath not to allow any of them to submit to such immoral humiliation. Instead, when he married off the first of his offspring, he and his daughter plotted to foil the lecherous Imam. Abu Ahmad and his daughter let it be known publicly that she had been wed. When new of the union reached the Abgal Imam, he sent a slave to the house demanding the ruler’s rights. Instead, Abu Ahmad beat the slave and sent him back to his master. Incensed, the Imam decided to go to the recalcitrant father’s house personally to punish him and take the bride to his bed. When he entered the house, however, Abu Ahmad and his kinsmen ambushed the ruler and killed him. This sparked a spontaneous uprising and the Abgal were expelled from the city. Abu Ahmad then gathered the elders of the town and instructed them to build a wall so that the pastoralists might never again settle in the town unimpended. While the Abgal were eventually allowed to reuturn and even regained much of their political power, so the story continues, they never again attempted to terrorize the townspeople or act in ways contrary to the laws of God. *

* Interview, Amina Shaykh Ali Nuur, Octover 6, 1994. As Cassanelli has pointed out, this is a common trope in the oral lore of the Benaadir. The fall of the Ajuran 300 years earlier is attributed to a similar display of royal hubris. Cassanelli, Shaping of Somali soceity, pp.109-112.

References;

Scott Reese “Holy men and social discourse in Colonial Benaadir”

Written by abshir100

July 3, 2009 at 1:52 pm