“ Sheekh Xasan Barsane “ ( 1853 – 1927 )Sheekh Xasn Sheekh Nuur Sheekh Axmed oo lo yiqiin Sheekh Xasan Barsane wuxuu dhashay sanadka markuu ahaa 1853, wuxuuna ku dhashay tuulada loo yaqaan Ubaadi oo u jirta qiyaas ilaa 68Km magaalada Jowhar, Gobolka Shabeelaha Dhexe, Soomaaliya.
Si kastaba ha ahaatee Sheekha wuxuu go’aansaday inuu la dagaalamo.
Waqtigii ayaa dhamaaday waxaa bilowday dagaaladii fool ka foolka ahaa ee Sheekhu la galay gumeysihii. Sheeikha iyo gumeystaha waxay kulmeen marar badan iyagoo dhamaan dagaaladii uu la galay gumeystaha uu halkaasi kaga guuleystay. Waxaana dagaaladii u Sheekha la galay gumeystaha ka xusi karnaa :
· Gumar Sheel ( 1905 ) waxa uu ahaa dagaalkii ugu horeeyay ee uu la galay Amxaardii oo markaas isku dayaysay inay la wareegto dhamaan dhulka Soomaaliyeed iyadoo markaas timid Taytayle
( Balcad ). Waxaa jiray dagaalo kale uu Sheekha la galay Ethiopia ilaa markii danbe ay dalka ka baxaan
Waxaa kaloo ka mid ahaa dagaaladii uu la galay gumeystaha gaar ahan Talyaaniga oo aan ka xusi karno :
1. Dagaalkii Buulo Barde oo dhacay 1922
2. Ceel Dheere 1922 iyo 1923
3. Hilweyne 1923
4. Jiliyaale 1924
5. Hareeriile 1924
Waxaa Sheekha lagu xabisay xabsiga loo yaqaaney Gaalshiro iyadoo markaasi maxkamada gumeysiga ay ku xukuntay 30 sano oo xarig ah oo ay u dheertahay shaqo adag iyo jirdil. Si kastaba ah ahaatee hadana gumeystaha ayaa ku qanci waayay inay xabisaan oo kaliya waayo Sheekh Xasan Barsane ayaa ahaa caqabadii ugu weyneyd ee ay gumeystaha Talyaaniga kala kulmeyn koonfurta Soomaaliya iyadoo aanba dhihi karno sheekha wuxuu ahaa quwada kali ah ee dagaalo waaweyn kaga hortimid. Talyaaniga ayaa 3 sano ka dib waxay hadana isku dayeen inay dilaan Sheekha iyagoo ay u suuro gashay sanada Markey ahayd 1927 iyado markaasi ay gumeystuhu ku xireen meel god ah oo aan ku filneyn inuu fariisto godkaas ayaa wuxuu lahaa oo kali ah meel yar oo shabaq camal ah oo uu xoogaa wax u neef ah ka qaadan jiray. Intaas oo kali ah ugumaysan simin hadana waxay ugu dareen inay sun ku buufiyaan qolkii uu ku xirnaa waxaana amarkaasi bixiyay KABEELLO sida uu xusay MAXAMED ABDI (Odoyaasha Muqdisho ) oo ka mid ahaa sadexdii Nin ee loo adegsaday inay fuliyaan falkaasi. Ugu danbeyntii Sheekha ayaa ku geeriyooday suntii. Sida ku xusan Orizento Impero iyo TREE ANNI DE IN SOMALIA .Sheekhu wuxuu dhintay taarikhdu mrkey ahayd 13. January 1927. waxaana lagu duugay Qabuuraha Sheekh Suufi oo ku yaalay agagaarka madaxtooyada Soomaaliya waxaana markii danbe loo qaaday oo uu hada ku aasan yahay degmada JILIYAALE oo markii hore Sheekha xarun u ahayd.
Todobaadka iyo shaqsiyada Jimcaha Shaaciye oo aan ku soo qaadaneyno Abwaan Soomaaliyeed oo dadka si weyn u yaqaanaan oo aan u maleyneynin in cid loo sheegayo aysan jirin, balse Jiilka cusub ee soo koraya mudan in la xasuusiyo Taarikhdiisa faneed Abwaan Cabdulle Raage Taraawiil oo bishii Maarso sanadkii 2000 geeriyooday.
Alle ha u naxariistee Abwaan Cabdulle Raage Warsame Taraawiil, waxa uu ku dhashay duleedka Degmada Ceeldheer ee gobolka Galgaduud sanadku markuu ahaa 1934-kii. Cabdulle Raage Warsame aabihiis Raage waxa uu ahaa afmaal deegaankii uu ku dhaqnaa nabadoon u ah, tirinta ereyo suugaaneedkana aad ayaa loogu texgelin jiray.
Intii uu yaraa Cabdulle Raage Warsame waxa uu isa saar saari jiray tixo suugaan ah, laakiin markii uu soo hano qaadey ayuu si weyn isugu taxaluujiyay suugaan tirinstiisa,waxaana lagu tiriyaa dadka fara ku tiriska ah ee iyadoo da’doodu ka hooseyso 15-jirka sida yaabka leh uga soo baxay goobaha la isugu yimaado.
Sanadkii 1943-kii ayuu Abwaan C/lle Raage si muuqata ugu soo biiray fanka, sidoo kale 1956-kii ayuu guursaday xaaskii ugu horeeyay markii ay mudo is qabeen kaddibna waxaa lagu xiray Degmada Ceelbuur ee isla Gobolka Galgaduud dabadeedna waxaa loo soo wareejiyay magaalada Muqdisho si halkaasi Maxkamad loogu saaro, hase yeeshee waa la sii daayay kadib markii lagu waayay dembigii lagu soo eedeeyay.
Allaha u naxariistee Abwaan Cabdulle Raage Taraawiil waxa uu ku biiray Xisbigii Libaraale ee uu Guddoomiyaha u ahaa Allaha u naxariistee Xaaji Maxamuud Maxamed Boraako, isagoo gubaabin jiray taageerayaasha Xisbiga, sidoo kale wuxuu Abwaanku ku biiray Idaacadda Raadiyo Muqdisho, waxaana lala yaabay kaalintii uu ka qaatay munaasabadihii loo sameeyay Xorriyaddii iyo Calan-saarkii Soomaalida 1960-kii taas ayaana u sahashay inuu ka mid noqdo shaqaalaha ugu firfircoon ee Radio Muqdisho, inkastoo ay jireen caqabado yaryar oo ka hor yimid
Abwaan C/lle Raage wuxuu ahaa Mu’alif Riwaayadaha qora, Gabyaa caan ah, jilaa si aad ah loo jecleystay, waxaana ka mid ahaa Riwaayadihii lagu xasuusto (Shabeel Naagood) oo uu isagu Aktar ka ahaa uuna lahaa Abwaan Xasan Sh.Muumin, (Yaxaas Dhegaduub) oo uu lahaa Sangub, (Dhagax iyo dab) oo uu lahaa Cali Sugulle iyo Riwaayado kale oo aad u fara badan.
Marxuum Abwaan C/lle waxaa sanadkii 1968-kii loo magacaabay “Radio Artiste” oo kulminayay Madaxa Raadiyaha Walaalaha Hargeysa iyo Radio Muqdisho, sanadihii 1964-kii waxa uu kaalin mug leh ka qaatay dagaalkii lagula jiray dalweynihii Xabashida isagoo ku muteystay Bilado dhowr ah.
Sanadkii 1974-kii waxaa loo bedelay Radio Hargeysa, isagoo loo magacaabay Guddoomiyaha Fanka W/Galbeed, wuxuuna bedelkaasi ka tiriyay ilaa Toddobo Gabay, sanad kaddibna wuxuu ku soo laabtay magaalada Muqdisho, waxaana loo magacaabay Guddoomiyaha shaqaalaha Wasaaradda Warfaafinta, kaddibna wuu iska casilay markii ay is qabsadeen isaga iyo Abwaan Shareeco.
Allaha u naxariistee Abwaan C/lle waxay Soomaalidu ku xusuusataa Gabayadiisii u badnaa Gobanimadoonka iyo la dagaalanka Gumeysiga madow gaar ahaan dagaalkii dhex maray Soomaalida iyo Itoobiya sanadihii 1977 ilaa 1978-kii. wuxuu kaloo ka qeyb galay Bandhig faneedyo caalami ah, sida kii lagu qabtay magaalada Lagos ee dalka Nayjeriya 1978-kii kaasoo ay ka soo qeyb galeen 37-Dowladood oo Afrikaan ah, wuxuuna ka galay kaalinta Koowaad taasoo uu ku muteystay abaalmarin caalami ah iyo Billad, Gabaygii uu halkaas uga qeyb galayna waxaa lagu magacaabaa Dhambaal.
Abwaanka waxaa lagu xusuustaa Gabayadii Wadaniga ahaa, wuxuuna gabaygan uu kaga hadlayaa qiimaha farta Soomaaliga oo xiligii la soo saaray qorista far Soomaaliga uu tiriyay, lagana sii deyn jiray Radio Muqdisho.
Labaatan iyo labo aamustiyo, shaqal irmaaneeya
Amran iyo tilmaamiyo gudbe, aade iyo jooge
isku dare xiriiriye falkaab, erayadeennii ah
Ebyan iyo haddaan magac u yaal, ku arkay joornaalka
Mar haddii afkeygii la qoray, Aabe iyo Hooyo
Mar hadaan amaahsigii ka baxay, lagu ogoontoobay
Abaal waxaa leh nimankii fartaa, soo abaabulaye
Amiirnimo sin iyo garab jirteey, nagu abuureene
Afafka qalaad iyo maxaa, eregta ii dhiibay
Anaa macallimoo raba dad loo furo iskuullaade.
Waxaa kaloo xusuus mudan Gabagii caan baxay ee Duqa haloo sheego ee uu ka tiriyay Caddaalad daradii Dowladdii Kacaanka ee Maxamed Siyaad hoggaamin jiray Allaha u naxariistee.
Doontaa Waqooyi iyo degmada Laascaano
Ganacsigu waa nin iyo Dooqiise
Dulmi Xamar ku siman baa jiree, duqa haloo sheego
Dan-wadaagaha ineynaan ku jirin, lagu dul noolaaday
Roobna gaar noogu di’in duqa haloo sheego
Dad kale in loo raro qamadi, lagu daryeelaayo
Iyadoo warqado lagu dabaqay daaya ku hor taalo
aniguna midkaan suuqa duwan degel ku soo iibshay
Gaariga inay kala degaan, duqa haloo sheego
Dugsiyada xaggoodiina ardaydii deyro laga keenaye
Imtixaankii diblomad daacad laga dhowrye
Deymo iyo eeg baa xarfihii laga dersaayaa’e
Dee iyo waryaa nimaan laheyn diintase aan caayin
Dad uma yaqaaniine, duqa haloo sheego
Horaantii 1980-kii waxa uu si aad ah u duray hab dhaqankii Kacaanka, isagoo si toos ah uga hor yimid qorshihiisii guracnaa taas ayaana sababtay in xabsiga la dhigo, dabadeedna lagu sameeyo jirdil gaarsiiyay inuu xabsiga ku dhameysto Isbitaal Digfeer.
Abwaan C/lle Raage Allaha u naxariistee Gabayada sida weyn loogu xusuusto waxaa ka mi ah: Duqa haloo sheego, Arrin walaacday, Marmarsiimo hadal, Saaqid, Qof u yaal iyo kuwo kale oo tiro badan, waxa uu si aad ah uga hor yimid sidii bahalnimada lahayd ee ay u dhaqmeen Jabhadihii Hubka qaatay, kuwaasoo ka daray Xukuumadii kali taliska ahayd ee uu horayba uga qeyliyay Abwaanku.
Taariikhdu waa dhaxal ma dhammaato weligeed, qof kastaana wuu dhiman, Abwaanku waxa uu geeriyooday bishii Maarso sanadkii 2000, wuxuuna ifka uga tegay Laba Caruur ah iyo xaas.
Qaar ka mid ah Gabayadiisa xusuusta Mudan, Gabaygan oo uu tiriyay Abwaanka ayaa wuxuu jawaab u ahaa Gabay kale oo uu tiriyay Khaliif Sheekh Muxumad.
Marmarsiinyo hadalkaagi, iyo meel ka dhicidaadi
Gabayadi macluusha u badnaa, maqallay Jaalloowe
Anigoon middaa iyo mid hore, kala micnayneynin
Haddaad meherad leeday waqtigu, waa ku soo maraye
Mindida daabka adigaa qabsaday, maalintii hore’e
Gobannimo mudnaanteed haddii, lagu mihiibsiiyey
Halkaan maamul loo siman yahay, ee mida ka dhawraynay
Maandeeqdi noo curatay baad, maashay keligaaye
Annagoo minja-caddaadnay, ee nalagu maadeysto
Meleg baas adinkoo nagu hayee, meydku tira dhaafay
Milliterigu waatuu saq-dhexe, kaa maroorsadaye
Macbuudkii na kiin dhaafiyaan, mahadinaynaaye
Mus ka soo dhac iyo caydu, waa meheraddiinniiye
Idinkoo marsaday xeeryaha, een marax idiin oollin
Haddana inaad maxlalo doontahaan, maanka ka arkaaye
Maansada masala-gaabka, iyo mala carruureedka
Malxiiskaan mashxaradda u tumeen, marin abaalkeedi
Adigoo muruxsan oo qaawan, aa meel lagaa helaye
Maraay aa lagaa soo dejiyey, maalin duhurkiiye
Markhaatina waxaa lagu hayaa, maqalya taariikh
Adigoo maqaar bahal eh, iyo aadmi madixiisa
Markaan ku arkayaan kaa samray, oo kaa mural jabay
Murdisadi aad iga taabatay, aan mayray toban jeer
Marjafkii ninkii kaa jaree, marada kuu iibshey
Markaad dheregto inad caydo, waa garac maqaankii
Mushkiluu dhaxlaa ruux kastee, wacal masruufaa
Ninka magaca Soomaliyeed, midabbaduu yeelay
Waa nimaan minhaaj iyo ku dhalan, meher xalaaleed
Oo aan mufti iyo hooyadii, macallin loo geyn.
Allaha u naxariistee Abwaan Cabdulle Raage waxaa uu jeclaa Nabadda, waxaana uu ka qeyb qaatay dadaalo badan oo dalka nabad loogu raadinayay xiliyadii burburka ee uu uu noolaa isagoo ka qeybgalay shirirkii dib u heshiisiinta ee Ethiopia iyo kuwo kale, waxaa xusuus mudan in Abwaanka wiil uu dhalay oo laga soo sheegtay in uu gacantiisa uu tolkiisa ugu dhiibay amrayna in la dilo.
Gabagabadii, Abwaan Hadraawi oo aqoon durugsan u lahaa Cabdulle Raage ayaa waxaa uu sharxay shaqsiyadii Abwaanka, wuxuuna ku tilmaamay Hobol isaga isbaray dadka Soomaaliyeed, hobol qalbigiisa buuxiyay Wadaninimo, Hobol caan ku ah meexaalaha, madadaalada iyo Qaran baalwinnimada, wuxuuna ku sifeeyay Cabdulle Raage nin dadnimada gob ka ah, laguna soo hirto, wuxuuna kula dardaarmay shacabka Soomaaliyeed in ay ka qaataan tilmaamaha dadnimada dhisa ee uu lahaa Abwaan Cabdulle Raage, Suugaantii uu ka tegayna dadka baahiyaan oo ay xafidaan una duceeyaan.
Hadaba anagoo ah Bahda shaaciye.com waxaan ugu duceeynay in uu janadii fardowso aheyd ka waraabiyo oo uu durdurada webiyada iyo nimcooyinka janadii fardowso ka waraabo Aaamiin
The Hawiyas, who aro dominant in Ogaden, that is, the great central territory of Sonvjli Land, are certainly the most powerful of all the Somali people. M. Revoil describes them as less bellicose than the other branches of the race, but at the same time more fanatical and more dangerous to foreigners. They belong to a distinct Mohammedan sect, which, to judge from their practices, seems in some way akin or analogous to that of the Wahabites in Central Arabia. According to tbe accounts received by Sottiro, the Hawiyas have a large infusion of Galla blood, to which may perhaps be attributed the fact that their complexion is of a lighter shade than that of the seaboard tribes. In the inland regions most of them appear to be settled agriculturists, which is doubtless due to the greater elevation of this region, which is also better watered and more fertile than the low-lying coastlands. In Ogaden, a land of pasturage and of cattle, they are on the contrary all nomads.
In several parts of their domain the Hawiyas are numerically in a minority. In fact in these districts they constitute a higher caste or political rulers, who regard with contempt the bulk of the inhabitants as belonging to alien tribes, or even to conquered races. Thus the Adone people, who occupy the southern parts of Ogaden, differ altogether from the Somali proper, and according to their language and social habits should rather be grouped with the Bantu populations. The Adone idiom is closely related to the Ki-Swaheli of the Zanzibar coastlands.
The two castes of the Yebirs and Tomals, who, like the European gipsies, are the fortune-tellers, blacksmiths, and tinkers of these regions, are also regarded as tribes of different origin from the true Hawiyas. The Yebirs are somewhat addicted to magic practices, such as manufacturing amulets, conjuring snakes, healing the sick, casting lots, and interpreting omens. They also take a leading part in all feasts and public ceremonies. The Tomals, called also Handads, forge the spear-heads; but although indispensable to the community they are kept beyond the precincts of the villages, and obliged to marry amongst themselves, being despised and feared as baneful magicians.
In still greater contempt are held the Midgans, called also Rami, that is to say ” Archers,” who are universally regarded us the lowest of the low. They worship trees and snakes, and eat all the prohibited food, such as fish, fowl, eggs, hares, and gazelles. Thev are also daring hunters, fearlessly attacking the lion and the elephant, whom they pierce with their poisoned arrows. Like the Yebirs, tho Midgans also practise medicine, and have the reputation of being extremely clever charlatans. According to the Somali legends, the lower castes are the issue of crossings between Abyssinian women and maleficent genii, while the Midgans are of still more degraded origin, their ancestors having been the slaves of these Abyssinian women.
The Earth and Its Inhabitants …: South and east Africa
July 22/1960 Golahii Wasiirada ee ugu horeeyey uu Ra’iisulwasaare Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmarke uu magacaabo iyo beelaha ay ka soo jeedeen:
|Cabdi/shid Cali Sharmarke||Ra’iisul wasaare||Daarood||Majeerteen||Bari|
|Cabdi Xassan Buuni||Ra’isulwasare kuxigeen||Gadabursi||Samaron||Awdal|
|Axmed Xaji Ducale||Wasiirka Beeraha||Isaaq||H/Jecel||Sanag|
|Maxamed Ibrahim Cigal||Wasirka Difaaca||Isaaq||H/Awal||W/galbeed|
|Cali Garad Jamac||Wasirka Tacliinta||Darood||Dhulbahante||Sol|
|Abdikaadir (Zoobe)||Wasiirka Maaliyadda||Raxweyn||Disow||Bay|
|Abdullahi Ciise Maxamud||Wasiirka A/Dibadda||Hawiye||Habar gedir||Mudug|
|Sheikh Cali Jimcale||Cafimaadka & Shaqada||Hawiye||Xawadle||Hiraan|
|Sheikh Cabdule Maxamud||Warshadaha & Ganacsiga||Darood||Mareexaan||G/Gaduud|
|Cali Maxamed Hirawe||Wasiirka Warfaafinta||Hawiye||Abgal||Sh/Dhexe|
|Cabdi/saaq Xaaji Xusseen||Wasirka A/Gudaha||Darood||Majeerteen||Mudug|
|Mohamud Axmed Maxamed||Wasiirka Caddaaladda||Hawiye||Abgaal||Sh/Dhxe|
|Cabdi Nuur Maxamed Xussen||A/Bulshada & Isgarsiinta||Raxweyn||Bay|
|Cusman Maxamed Ibrahim||Wasirka Arimaha Soomaalida (Saddaxda maqan) NFD. Jabuti Ogadenya||Drood||Ogaadeen||J/Hoose|
July 20/1961, waxaa si aqlabiyad buuxda leh lagu doortay Axdigii joogtada ahaa ay ku dhaqmi laheyd dowladda la dooran doono. Waxaa dhamaaday halkii sanno oo xukuumadii kumeelgaarka ahayd, waxaa loo dareeray doorasho diimoqaraadiyad aheyd, waxaa gobolada iyo degmooyinka dalka laga soo doortay 121 xildhibaan (Dibutaate) oo noqday Golaha Barlamaanka.
July 11,1961, waxay mar labaad xubnaha barlamaanka Madaxweynaha Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliya u doortaan mudane Aadan Cabdulle Cusmaan oo hal cod kaliya kaga adkaaday mudanihii la tartamaayey ee Sheikh Cali Jimcaale, oo isagan Hawiye ahaa.
Madaxweyne Aadan Cadde, waxuu markale Ra’iisul wasaare u magacaabay Cabdirashiid Cali Sharma’arke.
Cabdirashiid waxaa laga sugayey inuu soo magacaawo Gole Wasiiro oo ka kooban 12 xubnood.
July 27/1961 Golihii wasiirada ee labaad uu Ra’iisul wasaare Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmarke uu magacaabay, magacyadooda iyo beelaha ay ka soo jeedaan:
|Aadan Cabdule Cusmaan||Madaxweyne||Hawiye||Ujeejeen||Hiiraan|
|Abdi/shid Cali Sharmarke||Ra’iisul wasaare||Darood||Majerteen||Bari|
|Ali Garad Jamac||Wasiirka Beeraha||Darood||Dhulbahante||Sool|
|Sheikh Cali Cusmaciil||Wasiirka Difaaca||Isaaq||H/yoonis||Togdheer|
|Maxamed Ibrahim Cigaal||Wasiirka Tacliinta||Isaaq||H/awal||W/galbeed|
|Cabdulkhadir (Zoobe)||Wasiirka Maaliyadda||Raxweyn||Disow||Bay|
|Cabdullahi Ciise Maxamed||Wasirka A/Dibadda||Hawiye||Habar Gidir||Mudug|
|Sheikh Cali Jimcale||Cafimaadka & Shaqada||Hawiye||Xawaadle||Hiiraan|
|Sh. Cabdullahi Maxamud||Warshadaha&Ganacsiga||Darood||Mareexaan||G/Gaduud|
|Cali Maxamed Hiraabe||Wasiirka Warfaafinta||Hawiye||Abgaal||Sh/Dhexe|
|Cabdi/saq Xaaji Xusseen||Wasiirka A/Gudaha||Daarood||Majeerteen||Bari|
|Maxamud Axmed Maxamed||Wasiirka Caddaladda||Hawiye||Abgaal||Sh/Dhexe|
|Cabdi Nur Maxamed Xussen||Wasiirka A/Bulshada & Isgaarsiinta||Raxweyn||Raxweyn||Bay|
Golihii wasiirada ee la magacaabay July 1961-kii, ayaa qilaaf, isqabqabsi iyo qabiil qancin darteeda laysuga shaandheeyey.
November 19,1962, ayaa hadana Gole wasiirada oo cusub uu magacaabay Ra’iisulwasaare Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmarke
|Aadan Cabdule Cusmaan||Madaxweyne||Hawiye||Ujejeen||Hiiraan|
|Abdi/shid Cali Sharmarke||Ra’iisul wasaare||Darood||Majerteen||Bari|
|Ali Garad Jamac||Wasiirka Beeraha||Darood||Dhulbahante||Sool|
|Hilowle Macalin Max’ed||W. Gaashandhigga||Darood||Ogadeen||J/hoose|
|Yusuf Cusmacil Samatar||W. Waxbarashada||Isaaq||Habar Awal||Waqoyi Galbed|
|Abdi/dir M. Adan Zope||Wasirka Lacagta||Raxweyn||Disow||Baay|
|Abdulahi Ise Mohamed||W. Arimaha Dibadda||Hawiye||Habar Gidir||Mudug|
|Maxamud Axmed Mohamed||W.Shaqalaha&Caafimadka||Hawiye||Abgaal||Sh/Dhexe|
|Xaji Ibrahim Cusman Fod||W.Ganacsiga&Warshadaha||Isaaq||Habar Yonis||Waqoy Galbed|
|Cali Maxamed Hirabe||Wasiirka Warfaafinta||Hawiye||Abgal||Sh/Dhexe|
|Mohamud Abdi Nur(Juuje)||W. Arimaha Gudaha||Dir||Qubeys||Baay|
|Axmed Geele Xassan||Wasirka Cadaalada & Arimaha Diinta||Hawiye||Xawadle||Hiiraan|
|Cabdirisaq Xaji Xussen||Wasirka Isgaarsiinta & Arimaha Bulshada||Darood||Majeerten||Mudug|
|Golahan wasiirada ee cusub waxaa lagu soo daray:|
|Hilowle Macalin Maxamed Wasarada Difaaca…………………………Darood (Ogadeen)|
|Yusuf Cismacil Samatar Wasarasa Tacliinta………………………….Isaaq(Habar Awal)|
|Maxamed Axmed Maxamud Wasada Shaqaalaha iyo Caafimaadka …….Hawiye (Abgaal)|
|Axmed Geele Xassan wasiirka Cadaalada & Arimaha Diinta…………..Hawiye (Xawaadle)|
|Cabdirisaaq Xaaji Xussen Wasirka Isgarsiinta iyo arimaha Bulshada……Darood(Majerteen)
The following excerpts are from a book by the historian Lee Cassanelli The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900
In June 1908 Governor Carletti wrote to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs:
We cannot afford to delay our move inland, since it will be difficult to occupy the river when the rebels who left over two months ago return with guns from the Mullah Muhammad
To give added weight to his pleas for decisive government action, Carletti attached a letter from the sultan of Geledi written earlier that month:
The Biimaal have abandoned their territory and the major part—around 4000—are in voyage to the Mullah. Only the old men, women, and children remain. Even among the Hintire only a few remain…. You must make war without any delay. Don’t remain inactive…. Your enemies won’t obey your orders and say, “We will obey only Shaykh Muhammad Abdullah….” Hintire, Biimaal, Wacdaan, Jambelul, Daud, and Mobilayn amount to more than 100,000 [ sic ]. If their messengers return with arms, they will all stand against us and the territory will be lost, since they desire only war
While the letter almost certainly exaggerates the number of Somalis who actually left to contact the mullah in the north, it does give an idea of the extent to which the resistance had become pan-tribal. A united resistance is precisely what the colonials feared.
Therefore, in August 1908, auxiliary soldiers under Italian command marched inland to the Shabeelle. They raised the flag at Bariirey; they fought with valiant Somalis for several hours outside of Mereerey; then their forces marched triumphantly into Afgooye. The colonial occupation of the interior had begun, prompted by the events of the “Year of the Dervishes.”
Page 250 of Lee Cassanelli’s The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900
Electoral Distribution of the Somali Republic (1960-1969)
Source: The Somali News (The Government Weekly News Paper)
Like the nearby Geledi, the Hintire were a clan of mixed pastoralists and farmers. They occupied a compact stretch of territory flanking the Shabeelle River town of Mereerey.
Although the Hintire were considered raaciye (“followers”) of the Geledi sultan from the early nineteenth century and had supported him in the Baardheere campaign of 1843, they themselves claim that their ancestors never accepted the religious supremacy of the Gobroon shaykhs. In the middle of the nineteenth century, the recognized leader of the Hintire was Shaykh Madow Mahad.
According to Hintire traditions, it was this higher education that enabled Madow to surpass even the Gobroon shaykhs in knowledge of the mystical arts. The religious rivalry between Shaykh Madow and Shaykh Ahmed Yusuf of Geledi—who is also said to have studied at Baraawe as a young man—is the subject of numerous anecdotes, some in the form of Sufi stories extolling the superior insight of one or the other.
Although the Hintire could not hope to match the warrior strength of the Geledi, Madow’s religious esteem proved helpful to the Geledi, at least initially. When Ahmed Yusuf became sultan of Geledi in 1848, Madow is said to have given him some land as a sign of friendship and a token of their school days together at Baraawe.
And the Hintire claim that the prestige of their shaykh aided Ahmed in regaining the loyalty of many clans that had defected after the Biimaal victory over his father in 1848.
However, at the same time, Madow was acquiring a religious following of his own, notably among the Hober clan of Daafeed, a district where the Gobroon shaykhs had been dominant for several generations.
Limited political cooperation between these neighboring clans thus did not prevent competition between their leaders for spiritual ascendancy. Without some awareness of this traditional religious rivalry, the particular response of the Hintire to the colonial occupation would be less understandable.
Madow was succeeded as head shaykh of the Hintire by his eldest son Ashir, who from all accounts was every bit as gifted as his father. Ashir was truly a man of religion; where his father had combined the roles of shaykh and islao (politico-military head), Ashir gave the responsibilities of managing day-to-day affairs to one of his kinsmen, though he continued to be regarded by outsiders as spokesman for the Hintire.
(Until very recently there had existed among the Hintire both an islao and a head shaykh. In 1970 the revolutionary government abolished honorific titles, replacing them with the more egalitarian term Aw, a word signifying “respected elder”.)
Ashir had little sympathy for the military exploits of his Geledi neighbors; when Sultan Ahmed Yusuf tried to mobilize a large army to attack the Biimaal in 1878-79, Ashir refused to allow his people to participate.
This refusal appears to have marked the end of whatever cooperation had existed between the two clans. During the last two decades of the century, there occurred a number of skirmishes between the warriors of the Hintire and Geledi. The verdicts were mixed, although the Hintire won a last-minute victory in a battle in 1903-4, which proved to be the last between these riverine rivals.
The Geledi themselves admit losing the battle of Axad Mereerey (“the Sunday [year] of Mereerey”) because one of their warrior contingents attacked prematurely. The dating of a year by the battle suggests that it was one of the more important events that year (1903)
This background of antagonism toward the Geledi influenced the initial Hintire response to the “Italian problem.” Immediately after the battle of Lafoole in 1896, the Wacdaan sent a courier to Mereerey to solicit Shaykh Ashir’s support in their continuing struggle with the colonials. The courier asked Ashir to use his spiritual influence to help defeat the infidels. The Hintire leader refused on the grounds that the Wacdaan had assisted the Geledi in earlier battles with his clan. Ashir abruptly spurned the Wacdaan’s conciliatory offer of a gift of one hundred cows; the messenger is said to have ridden off without a parting word.
Shaykh Ashir’s position toward the colonials remained consistent throughout his lifetime and gives the lie to all simplistic views of Somali resistance. He felt that the Hintire, as good Muslims, should go to war only if their territory were invaded.
This policy he had applied in his dealings with other Somali clans as well. He had declined to participate in Sultan Ahmed’s aggressive campaigns against the Biimaal. He had counseled patience when his militant son and other kinsmen wanted to raid Geledi herds and seize land in dispute between the two clans. And as late as 1904, when acts of open resistance were becoming commonplace in the Benaadir, a colonial informer reported that Ashir refused to join the resisters: it was claimed that the shaykh would encourage his followers to take up arms only if the Italians moved inland and directly threatened Mereerey.
While Ashir sought to avoid endangering the lives of his kinsmen, he nonetheless wanted nothing to do with the infidels. He consistently rebuffed messengers sent to him by the Italian authorities.
Even his Somali enemies praised his nonaccommodating stance. A poet of Afgooye, recording the attitudes of the various southern clans toward the foreign invaders, said
Yet Ashir was aging, and his sons had begun jockeying for succession to his position of authority. At his death in May 1907, the three sons of his youngest wife decided to take a stance that was openly hostile to the Italians.
These three sons did not enjoy as much influence in Hintire clan councils as did Ashir’s older children. It is also possible that they had been excluded from Ashir’s political inheritance, for his eldest son, Muhyeddin, had become head shaykh of Mereerey while the second oldest, Isma’il, had assumed the leadership of the Hober at Daafeed. As a result, the three junior sons may have sought increased prestige and power by taking an independent stand on the colonial issue. The three began cooperating actively with the ever-growing group of Benaadir resisters, and Mereerey soon became a major center for the gethering of dervish recruits. Those Hintire who chose to fight still invoked the name of their deceased leader: oral accounts recall how one warrior rose during a shir and vowed that he would never offer an infidel the hand he had used to greet Shaykh Ashir.
At the news of his father’s death, another son, Abokor—soon to become the most famous—returned to Mereerey from the upper Shabeelle, where he had been assisting some kinsmen in their struggle against Ethiopia’s imperial armies. Already at this time Abokor was a declared dervish; nonetheless, he counseled his kinsmen to observe his late father’s dictum and refrain from following the example of the three younger brothers. Only when the Italians began to march inland in August 1908 did Abokor and his brothers reach an accord: they decided to oppose the occupation with arms. The town of Mereerey was one of the few places along the Shabeelle which met the Italians with a united show of force. More than seventy Hintire perished in a field outside the town, which was later burned to the ground. Several of those involved in the fighting were self-proclaimed supporters of the northern dervish leader Sayyid Muhammad Abdullah Hassan, among them Hussein Muhammad Yahiyow, nephew of Abokor Ashir, and Ibrahim Sha’ayb, who fired the first shot with a newly acquired musket.
A local poet recalled the battle some years later:
Abokor Ashir Madow said, I will not hoist the [infidels’] flag; The Hintire preferred death to disgrace. When the infidels came thundering into Mereerey, We saw many young men confront the barrels of guns; They were fired upon and silenced forever. We saw many people wearing mourning cloths, And many children who became orphans.
Lee Cassanelli “The shaping of Somali society”